- 1 Introduction
- 2 What is psychosis definition?
- 3 Symptoms of psychosis disorder
- 3.1 What is the realty of delusions and hallucinations?
- 3.1.1 Delusions
- 3.1.2 Hallucination
- 3.1.3 A hallucination is a type of sensory perception in the absence of outside stimuli. It means seeing, hearing, feeling, or smelling something that is not present.
- 3.1.4 A hallucinating person might see things that do not exist or hear people talking about him, when they are alone.
- 3.1 What is the realty of delusions and hallucinations?
- 4 Causes of psychosis disorder
- 5 Types of psychosis disorder
- 5.1 Brief psychotic disorder
- 5.2 Psychosis due to alcohol or drugs
- 5.3 Organic psychosis disorder
- 5.4 Any significant head injury or infection which affects the brain may also result in psychosis. Such type of psychosis is scientifically called as organic psychosis.
- 5.5 Psychotic disorders
- 5.6 Bipolar disorder/Mood disorder
- 5.7 Delusional disorder
- 5.8 Psychosis with depression
- 5.9 Schizophrenia
- 6 Diagnosis of psychosis disorder
- 7 Psychosis in children and teenagers age group
- 8 How to treat psychosis disorder ?
- 9 Conclusion
- What is psychosis disorder?. This question frequently arises in our mind. Psychosis is an old psychiatric term that has a very simple meaning. Exact meaning of psychosis is to be out of touch with reality.
- In other words, psychosis is experienced like a dream. Coincidences become significant. The impossible becomes possible.
- When any one experience psychosis, he feel trapped in nightmare. As a result whenever, person recover from psychosis he may be unable to remember what happened when he was psychotic.
- When he dream, he doesn’t realize that he is dreaming.
What is psychosis definition?
- Psychosis is defined as an impaired relationship with reality. It is a symptom of severe mental disorders.
- Person who is psychotic, may have either hallucinations or delusions.
- The person who experience psychosis may also have thoughts that are different to actual evidence.
- Such type of thoughts are known as delusions. Some person with psychosis may also experience loss of motivation and social withdrawal (not able to behave socially).
- These experiences can be terrifying. They may also cause people who are experiencing psychosis to harm themselves or others.
- It is very important to see a doctor (Psychiatrist) immediately if someone is experiencing the symptoms of psychosis.
- Hallucinations are a defect in our perception. In other words , these are sensory experiences that occur without any actual stimulus. For instance, a person with the problem of an auditory hallucination, may hear voices of his mother but in real his mother is not around.
- Now see one more example, a person with visual hallucination may notice something, like a person in front of him, but who is not actually there.
Symptoms of psychosis disorder
Symptoms of psychosis include:
- Disorganized speech and behavior (such as switching the topics and doing the things randomly)
- Not able to concentrate properly
- Depressed mood, loss of interest in work
- Not able to take proper sleep or excessive sleep
- Suspiciousness, fearfulness, excessive talk, tall claims
- Withdrawal from family and friends (Socially isolated)
- Suicidal thoughts or actions
- Catatonic features (maintain a bizarre posture for long time)
What is the realty of delusions and hallucinations?
- Delusions and hallucinations are two very special symptoms that are both often experienced by people with psychosis.
- Hallucinations and delusion appear actual to the person who is experiencing them.
- Delusion is a type of false belief that is firmly held even though it’s contradicted by reality and what is usually considered true.
- There are many types of delusions like paranoia, grandiose and somatic type delusions.
- People having a delusion of paranoia might think that, they are being followed when they are not. They also experience that secret messages are being sent to them.
- Person with a grandiose delusion will have an larger than life sense of importance.
- In somatic delusion, a person believes they have a terminal illness, but in reality they are healthy and totally alright.
A hallucination is a type of sensory perception in the absence of outside stimuli. It means seeing, hearing, feeling, or smelling something that is not present.
A hallucinating person might see things that do not exist or hear people talking about him, when they are alone.
What does psychotic mean ?
Causes of psychosis disorder
- Every case of psychosis is different. The exact reason is not always clear. There are many illnesses that cause psychosis.
- Certain triggering factors and situations also responsible for psychosis like drug abuse, disturbed sleep, and other environmental factors.
Disorders (Illnesses) causing psychosis disorder
- Brain diseases such as Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and chromosomal disorders.
- Brain tumors or cysts.
- There are certain types of old age illness like Alzheimer’s disease, that results in psychosis
- Other infections like HIV, syphilis, malaria that infect brain may also cause psychosis.
- In some cases of epilepsy, psychosis has been seen like post-ictal psychosis or peri-ictal psychosis.
- Stroke (a type of neurological disease characterized by loss of consciousness).
- Multiple sclerosis, lupus and hypoglycemia ( abnormally low level of glucose in the blood) have been found to trigger psychotic episodes in some patients.
- Risk factors for psychosis disorder
- Currently there is no options available which can identify, who is expected to develop psychosis. As per research, genes might have some role in developing psychosis.
- In family if someone has a psychotic disorder especially in parent or sibling, there is high chances of developing psychosis in that person.
- Best example of gene involvement is seen in person, where genetic mutation scientifically known as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is seen. These patients are at risk for developing a psychotic disorder known as schizophrenia.
Types of psychosis disorder
There are various types of psychosis based on specific conditions or circumstances. It include the following:
Brief psychotic disorder
- Brief psychotic disorder, sometimes also known as brief reactive psychosis. It usually occurs during periods of any personal stress like the death of a family member or any other stress.
- This type of psychosis will commonly recover in a few days to a few weeks, depending upon the source of the stress.
Psychosis due to alcohol or drugs
- Alcohols along with certain drugs like methamphetamine and cocaine can cause psychosis.
- Very popular drug LSD (a Hallucinogenic drugs) usually cause person to see things that aren’t really there.
- This effect is temporary. Some commonly prescribed drugs like steroids and stimulants may also cause psychosis in some person.
- Person who used to take alcohol or certain drugs, show psychosis, if they stop taking these drugs suddenly.
Organic psychosis disorder
Any significant head injury or infection which affects the brain may also result in psychosis. Such type of psychosis is scientifically called as organic psychosis.
- In this type, conventional psychotic disorders come. Stress, drug addiction, any head injury or chronic illness can be the trigger factors for developing psychosis.
- They can also emerge on their own. The subsequent disorders may have psychotic symptoms:
Bipolar disorder/Mood disorder
- Person with bipolar disorder shows from very high to very low. When mood is positive and high, they may have experience symptoms of psychosis. They may feel extremely good about themselves and believe that, they have special powers.
- When the mood is depressed, person may have psychotic symptoms that make them feel sad, angry or frightened. Sometimes he also think that someone is going to harm him.
- A person showing delusional disorder strongly believes in stuff that are not real. He is strongly convinced about his delusion.
- It is usually not shakable. Patient is very rigid about his thought.
Psychosis with depression
In this case patient has major depression. He has strong tendency for suicidal behaviors. During illness psychotic symptom of patient gradually increase.
- The most important example of psychosis disorder is schizophrenia.
- Schizophrenia is a type of brain disorder that affects a person’s ability to think, feel, and behave clearly.
- It is usually a long duration psychiatric illness associated with psychotic features.
Diagnosis of psychosis disorder
- There is no obvious investigation available for diagnosis of psychosis.
- But It can be easily diagnosed by complete psychiatric evaluation.
- Psychiatric evaluation includes proper history and mental status examination (MSE).
- MSE means a doctor (Psychiatrist/Psychologist) will observe the person’s behavior and ask questions about, what they are experiencing.
- Medical tests and X-rays/CT scan brain /MRI brain may be used to determine whether there is an underlying illness causing the symptoms.
Psychosis in children and teenagers age group
- Most of the symptoms of psychosis in children are different than adults.
- Small children have usually imaginary friends with whom they talk. It is basically an imaginary play which is completely normal for children.
- But if we feel that behavior of child or adolescent is not appropriate as per situation, we should talk to our doctor.
How to treat psychosis disorder ?
Treatment of psychosis involves a combination of medicines and therapy. Patients usually show good response on these treatment.
- In some cases patient with psychosis seems very violent and dangerous. In such type of cases it is very important to calm them down very quickly.
- This process is known as rapid tranquilization. A doctor usually gives fast acting injections or liquid medicine to quickly sedate the patients.
- Symptoms of psychosis can be controlled with medications called antipsychotics. Medicines reduce delusions and hallucinations and and help people think more clearly. The choice of antipsychotic depends upon the diagnosis and decided by Psychiatrist.
- In most of the cases, antipsychotics for a short time is enough for controlling the symptoms.
- People with chronic psychotic illness like schizophrenia may have to stay on medications for long time, even for life long sometimes.
Cognitive behavioral therapy
- Cognitive behavior therapy (C.B.T.) means meeting frequently to talk with a mental health counselor with the aim of changing thinking and behaviors.
- It is usually not used in case of frank psychotic patients. But this type of approach has been shown to be very effective in helping those people who make permanent changes and better manage their illness. In addition, It is usually most helpful for psychotic symptoms that don’t entirely resolve with medications.
- Psychosis disorder itself doesn’t have many medical complications. But if does not treated properly, it can be very challenging for people experiencing psychosis.
- In this case patient not able to take good care of himself as a result other illnesses to go untreated.
- But the positive thing is most people who experience psychosis will recover completely with proper treatment.
- In conclusion, even severe cases of psychosis have good prognosis and can be managed with medication and therapy.